By Mian Mohammad Sharif
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Extra resources for A history of Muslim philosophy: With short accounts of other disciplines and the modern renaissance in Muslim lands- Vol I
This has led to the practice of calling the Nyaya the Hindu logic, which by the way does not adequately describe the scope of the system. According to the author of the system, "Supreme felicity is attained through knowledge about the true nature of the sixteen categories (Paddrthas) ,"55 The first work of the Nyaya system consists of sixty aphorisms, and the first sutra gives a list of the subjects to be discussed. These are sixteen in number: (1) pramdna or the means by which right knowledge may be gained; (2) prameya or the object of thought; (3) doubt; (4) motive; (5) instance or example; (6) dogma or determinate truth; (7) argument or syllogism; (8) confutation; (9) ascertainment; (10) controversy; (II) jangling; (12) objection or cavilling: (13) fallacy; (14) perversion; (15) futility; (16) conclusion or the confounding of an adversary.
Book 1 discusses the five categories—substance, quality, action, community or genus, and particularity; Book 2 deals with the substances—earth, water, air, ether, space, and time; Book 3 is concerned with the problems of mind and self and also touches the theory of inference; Book 4 is about the atomic theory and discusses the nature of body and the visibility of quality; Book 5 deals with motion; Book 6 contains duties of the four stages of life; Book 7 treats of quality, the atomic theory, the self, and inherence together; Books 8 and 9 deal with perception and inference; while Book 10 is concerned with causality and other related questions.
Since the main trend of Hindu thought has been idealistic, the Carvaka system has contributed very little to the sum of Indian thought, 40 and this is rather unfortunate. In view of the fact that the Vedas, the Upanisads, and the Gita reject the evidence of the senses as illusory, the Carvaka contention might have served as a corrective. 2. —Jainism, according to Tomlin," is the most perplexing of all religions, for it is not only incredible but also impracticable. It denies life to the extent of recommending suicide as the most sacred act of which man is capable, and yet it has survived for two thousand years.
A history of Muslim philosophy: With short accounts of other disciplines and the modern renaissance in Muslim lands- Vol I by Mian Mohammad Sharif