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By Michael Cooperson

ISBN-10: 1851683860

ISBN-13: 9781851683864

Аль-Мамун (786—833) — багдадский халиф из династии Аббасидов.Сын Харуна аль-Рашида. Мать Мамуна была персидского происхождения. После смерти отца халифом стал его брат Аль-Амин, а Мамун стал губернатором Хорасана. В ходе вспыхнувшей гражданской войны, Мамун в 813 г. захватил Багдад и воцарился. Привлек к управлению государством ученых и основал в Багдаде Дом Мудрости (Бейт аль-хикма), созданную в подражание старинной персидской академии Джундишапура.В 827 г. по его повелению (и при его финансировании) были проведены градусные измерения дуги меридиана в долине Синджар, осуществлён перевод труда Птолемея на арабский язык («Альмагест»); в 829 г. в Багдаде основана астрономическая обсерватория.

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The belief itself was not new, but al-Ma’mun was to go further than any of his predecessors in living up to it. So long as al-Ma’mun was studying law with his tutors, or discussing theology with kalam-debaters, his opinions were of importance only to him. 050 25/02/2005 10:25 AM Page 36 36 AL-MA’MUN thought. When, however, he became caliph, his opinions became those of the head of state. Had he been less interested in intellectual matters, he might have kept his opinions to himself. Instead, however, he proclaimed them to be the only basis of right belief.

In the works of later chroniclers hostile to kalam, the term “Jahmi” is loosely used as a term of abuse for anyone who believed the Qur’an was created. In that sense, it is frequently applied to al-Ma’mun and the scholars he supported. Also among the Barmakis’ associates were scholars described as Shiites. As we have seen, members of this group believed that the only legitimate leaders of the community were certain male descendants of Ali, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in law. Al-Ma’mun is unlikely to have accepted this position, which implied that his own Abbasid family had no right to rule.

The documents also say that al-Ma’mun, in addition to being his brother’s heir, was to govern Khurasan (in effect, the eastern half of the empire). In Sasanian times, the heir to the throne had customarily been appointed governor of that province, but no Abbasid prince had ever formally held the title. As late as al-Rashid’s reign, the caliphs were still recruiting soldiers there. According to the succession documents, al-Ma’mun was to have full authority to rule the province without interference by his brother.

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Al-Ma’mun by Michael Cooperson

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