By Ricardo Garcia
Filling a niche within the literature, this e-book positive aspects in-depth discussions on amplitude modulation AFM, delivering an outline of the idea, instrumental concerns and purposes of the approach in either academia and undefined. As such, it comprises examples from fabric technological know-how, delicate condensed subject, molecular biology, and biophysics, between others. The textual content is written in the sort of approach as to permit readers from various backgrounds and degrees of workmanship to discover the knowledge appropriate for his or her wishes.
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Extra info for Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy
3). The DMT model considers the existence of adhesion forces acting outside the contact area. The adhesion force is calculated by Fad ¼ ð3:8Þ 4pRc: In addition to the adhesion force, during the contact there is a repulsive force that at the atomic and molecular level comes from Pauli and ionic repulsion, p 4 Fr ¼ Eeff Rða0 3 z zc Þ3=2 for zc þ z a0 ; ð3:9Þ where c is the surface energy with Wad ¼ 2c. The radius of the contact area is given by a3 ¼ 3R ðF þ Fad Þ; 4Eeff where F is the applied load.
The dynamic quantities describing rectangular cantilevers are amenable of analytical treatments, so the rest of the section is devoted to them. For a theoretical description of triangular cantilevers, the reader may consult Refs [25, 26]. The cantilever properties of interest in AM AFM are the force constant, the resonant frequency, and the quality factor. The force constant enables to transform intermolecular and nanoscale forces into force measurements. The resonant fre quency is one of the factors that control the time response of the instrument and the quality factor is a measure of the hydrodynamic damping of the cantilever with the environment (liquid or gas).
More sophisticated and self consistent descriptions of the deformation, the stress, and the interaction forces between surfaces have been developed by Maugis  and Muller et al. . Continuum mechanics models have provided good descriptions of some exper imental results [19 21]. Furthermore, atomistic simulations show that some of the parameters relevant to dynamic AFM such as the indentation or the contact area are well described by some contact mechanics models . However, the use of continuum mechanics models to describe nanoscale mechanical properties has some limitations [14, 22 24].
Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy by Ricardo Garcia