By Leslie Aiello
An anthropologist and an anatomist have mixed their abilities during this ebook to supply scholars and study staff with the necessities of anatomy and the skill to use those to investigations into hominid shape and serve as. utilizing easy ideas and suitable bones, conclusions could be reached concerning the possible musculature, stance, mind dimension, age, weight, and intercourse of a selected fossil specimen. this kind of deductions that are attainable are illustrated by means of reference again to modern apes and people, and a coherent photo of the heritage of hominid evolution appears to be like. Written in a transparent and concise variety and wonderfully illustrated, An creation to Human Evolutionary Anatomy is a uncomplicated reference for all fascinated about human evolution in addition to a worthy spouse to either laboratory sensible periods and new learn utilizing fossil skeletons.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy
When the population of oligodendrocyte precursors expands to sufficient numbers—usually at the time of birth—they migrate through the developing central nervous system in search of neurons destined to be myelinated. As they make contact with axons of their target neurons, they begin to turn into mature oligodendrocytes. They stop dividing and start producing myelin-specific proteins and fats. They extend many branch-like structures in preparation for wrapping the axons. A single oligodendrocyte can extend as many as 50 to 60 branch-like structures that end in sheets of myelin membrane and is able to myelinate a variety of axons in its area.
Target cells release trophic factors that are necessary for the continued survival of the neurons. Neurons that are able to get enough trophic factors survive, while the others die. ■ Learn more about the contents of this chapter Search the Internet for Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Rita Levi-Montalcini, and nerve growth factor. 5 Network Connectivity: Formation and Strengthening of Synapses No matter how well the birth, migration, and differentia- tion of neurons are choreographed, the human brain cannot function unless proper connections are made between neurons and their target cells.
They rarely survive beyond a few years of life. Similarly, in Kallman syndrome, neurons that produce sex hormones and neurons that sense odors fail to migrate to their proper locations. This results in underdeveloped genitalia, sterile gonads, and complete or partial loss of the ability to smell. Still, precisely how errors in neuronal migration cause diseases remains unclear. Environmental factors can also prevent migrating neurons from reaching their proper destination. These include exposure of the developing fetus to alcohol, cocaine, viral and bacterial infections, or radiation.
An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy by Leslie Aiello