New PDF release: Aspects of Aristotle's Logic of Modalities

By J. van Rijen

ISBN-10: 0792300483

ISBN-13: 9780792300489

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And that is evident from scrutiny and induction—I mean, the need both kinds have for a subject. For example, it is correct to predicate life of man because it applies to a designated man. So if it did not apply to any one individual person, it would not be correct to predicate it of man, which is the species. 8 It follows nec­ essarily, then, that anything other than primary sub­ stances is either said of them or in them—that is, of primary substances or in them. And if that is so, then if primary substances did not exist, there would be no way for secondary substances or for accidents to exist.

In the sixth, the categories of position, and time,1 and place,2 and to have. SECTION ONE 18. There are fourteen chapters in this section. In the first, he makes it known that there are two sorts of substance—primary and secondary—and he tells about each one of them. In the second, he makes known what the secondary substances are. In the third, he makes it known that the particular characteristic of secondary substances—these being the ones which are said of a subject—is that their name and definition are predicated of their subject and that it is not like this with those things which are said to be3 in a subject—these being the accidents.

An example of that is being rational. It is predicated of man, not in him, since it does not exist in him the way whiteness does in body. Therefore, the name and definition of the differentia may also be true of the subject, as occurs with the secondary substances. For being rational and its definition—namely, apprehending by means of thought and deliberation—are predicated of man by 12 See above, paras. 22 and 23. above, para. 19 and also para. 10. 14 See above, para. 21. The word "things" has been added here to avoid confusion; as was explained in para.

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Aspects of Aristotle's Logic of Modalities by J. van Rijen

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