By Miguel Angel Altieri; Clara Ines Nicholls
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Extra info for Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems [...] XA-GB
The bromegrass traps a large proportion of the incoming sawflies. They lay their eggs there, and the larvae bore into the stems. The elegant feature of this system is that the larvae die in the brome stems not before pupating but after larval parasitoids have emerged. No control of the insect on the trap plants is therefore necessary. Moreover, the grass acts as a filter which converts pests into beneficial biomass (Van Emden and Dabrowski, 1997). According to Vandermeer (1989), trap crops act preferentially to attract generalist herbivores in such a way that the plant to be protected is not as likely to be directly attacked.
Intercrops probably slowed colonization by pests. ) Andow (1991a) Classified pests as monophagous or 56 percent of herbivore species’ populations were lower in dipolyphagous. 254 herbivore species reviewed. verse systems, compared with 66 percent for monophagous herbivores and 27 percent for polyphagous ones. Predator numbers were higher in 48 percent of diverse habitats studied, as were 81 percent of parasitoids’. Concluded that both hypotheses applied but RC hypothesis most important. Cromartie (1991) Reviewed data from annual row crops and from perennial crops.
At times, all that is needed is to halt insecticide treatments to restore ecosystem regulating functions, as was the case in Costa Rican banana plantations, where after two years of nontreatment, major insect pests decreased and many former insect pests nearly disappeared. After ten years, most pests were under total biological control (Stephens, 1984). Recent studies comparing arthropod fauna in organic and conventional farming systems confirm the benefits of pesticide removal on the diversity of beneficial arthropods on the foliage and soils (Paoletti, Stinner, and Lorenzoni, 1989).
Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems [...] XA-GB by Miguel Angel Altieri; Clara Ines Nicholls