By Klaus Dieter Budras, Robert E. Habel, Anita Wunsche, Silke Buda
This certain atlas on Bovine Anatomy combines the benefits of either topographical and platforms established equipment of anatomy. each one web page of textual content faces a whole web page of practical illustrations in color. The topographical remedy of elements of the physique is observed by means of illustrations of the bones, joints, muscle tissue, organs, blood vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes of every half. info tables at the muscle tissue, lymph nodes, and peripheral nerves supply short facts referenced to the textual content. The illustrations have been drawn from dissections particularly ready for that function, and directions are given for the dissections. specific realization is paid to the histology, progress, and serve as of the bovine hoof, in keeping with broad study. as well as the gross anatomy of the udder, its improvement, histology, and serve as are defined and illustrated. One bankruptcy is dedicated to the pathology, pathogenesis, and molecular biology of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, scrapie of sheep and goats, and protracted losing illness of yank deer and elk.
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Extra info for Bovine Anatomy: An Illustrated Text
For example, since most enzymes and many structural components are composed of proteins, mutations can lead to a variety of enzyme deficiency diseases or disorders affecting membrane transport or regulation of metabolism. Sickle cell anemia is an example of an inherited mutation that is caused by an inappropriate substitution of one amino acid in the entire hemoglobin molecule. Mutations also can cause cancer. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet light, X-rays, and some chemicals, such as tars in cigarette smoke, alcohol, and certain environmental pollutants, can cause mutations.
This is accomplished by a passive process called facilitated diffusion. In this case, the transported substance moves across the membrane by interacting with a protein “carrier ” molecule. Although movement by facilitated diffusion follows a concentration gradient, the carrier is needed as a transport “vehicle” to allow a substance to cross the lipid bilayer. If you think of an ion channel as a typical door in a classroom, then a carrier protein could be thought of as a revolving door in a department store.
Glucose and amino acids) may cross a cell membrane using protein carrier molecules in a process known as facilitated diffusion (see text for a further explanation of this process). to the other by conformational changes in the protein. 2). Osmosis is a special case of diffusion. 3). In solutions, solute takes up space that water molecules would otherwise occupy. Thus, a higher concentration of solute means a lower concentration of water. q 6/21/03 1:03 PM Page 38 38 CELLS, TISSUES, AND SKIN solute particles depends only on their number and not their size, kind, or charge.
Bovine Anatomy: An Illustrated Text by Klaus Dieter Budras, Robert E. Habel, Anita Wunsche, Silke Buda